More studies are required to confirm these findings and to determine the optimal duration of treatment, but when making therapeutic decisions one should consider the possibility of resistance selection.
Bacteriologic response to acute otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae treated with azithromycin. However, it has been suggested that sub-optimal dosage of antibiotics, caused by either inadequate prescribing or a failure to comply with medication, and a long duration of dosage may promote the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacterial clones.
Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: The increased prevalence of penicillin-resistant and macrolide-resistant strains of S. Impact of antibiotic treatment on nasopharyngeal carriage and spread of penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant S.
If eradication does not succeed, the resistant clones will lead the process of recolonization of the mucosal membranes after discontinuation of therapy. The spread of resistant clones throughout a population may also be exacerbated by the failure to eradicate bacteria.
For fluoroquinolones and azalides, the ratio of the area under the time—concentration curve AUC to the MIC correlates more closely with efficacy for these agents. Download all figures. It is a valuable database for studying the evolution of resistance patterns in RTI pathogens.
The clone was first isolated in a single child, reached the second group after about 1 month and disseminated until it was widespread throughout both groups. In some countries, such as South Africa or in some parts of the USA, the prevalence of penicillin resistance is high and the prevalence of macrolide resistance is low, whereas in Belgium or Italy, resistance to macrolides by far surpasses penicillin resistance.
Continued nasopharyngeal carriage appears to be an important factor in the dissemination of resistant clones. Citing articles via Web of Science 149. These data suggest that azithromycin should not be a first choice in the treatment of otitis media, particularly in countries with a high prevalence of macrolide-resistant S. Antibiotic therapy should not only be active against both susceptible and resistant strains at concentrations achievable at the site of infection, but also reduce the prevalence of carriage to minimize the potential for the selection and spread of resistant clones.
Resistant isolates of the key respiratory pathogens S. Fernando Baquero. This may also be the case for other respiratory tract infections. The patterns of resistance continue to change and antimicrobials that are effective today may be ineffective against resistant pathogens tomorrow.
The effect of increased antimicrobial resistance is seen most dramatically in meningitis. Yagupsky, P.
Resistant and susceptible penicillin pneumococcal pneumonia—comparative study.