How a radio communication system works

That generates an electric current—a signal that the electronic components inside my radio turn back into sound I can hear. You want it to be able to receive calls wherever it is in relation to the nearest phone mast, or pick up messages whichever way it happens to be pointing when it's lying in your bag, so a highly directional antenna isn't much good. You take that electricity and, loosely speaking, make it flow along a tall metal antenna boosting it in power many times so it will travel just as far as you need into the world.

How Radio Works

Quizzes " " Popular Commercial Slogans Quiz. Older ones like the Motorola on the left have stubby external antennas or ones that pull out telescopically. McGraw-Hill, 2010. They are Sampling Quantizing Encoding Sampling The analog signal amplitude is sampled at regular time intervals. An FM antenna picks up the relatively short wavelength, high-frequency electric part of FM radio waves. That's helpful for something like television, where you might need to pick up many different channels, but much less useful for telephone, cellphone, or satellite communications where all you're interested in is a very specific radio wave transmission on a fairly narrow frequency band.

how a radio communication system works

At the transmitter end, message signal is modulated with radio frequency carrier signal. Broadly speaking, the length of a simple rod-type antenna has to be about half the wavelength of the radio waves you're trying to receive it's also possible to make antennas that are a quarter of the wavelength, compact miniaturized antennas that are about a tenth the wavelength, and membrane antennas that are even smaller, though we won't go into that here.

None of the original radio experiments used transmitters or receivers that we would instantly recognize today.

how a radio communication system works

Advantages Low cost. It reduces the number of bits per sample used for PCM. Semantic Transmitted data contains digital representation of any real time variable. Transmitter is the first stage of the optical fiber communication system.

Antennas and transmitters

That means their wavelength is about 10 times shorter than FM radio, so they need an antenna roughly one tenth the size. Because of its advantages in many areas, it has already replaced wired communication. It is the process of assigning discrete values to all samples.

Oliver Lodge's illustration of sending radio waves through space from a transmitter red to a receiver blue some distance away, taken from his 1898 patent US 609,154: Therefore, to improve the transmission distance, Optical regenerators must be used at regular intervals. If the second person is standing 200 meters away from the first person, he cannot hear what the other person is saying.

how a radio communication system works

But amplitude modulation can only be used in analog signals. So far so good, but what about cellphones? A tour of Apple's secret antenna-testing laboratory.

The noise is first removed and demodulated to produce the original signal. Data trans. If the sender produces data at one rate and receiver process at a lower rate, then there is a possibility of data loss causing incorrect interpretation or system failure. Propagation The behavior of radio waves when they are transmitted from one point to the other is defined by propagation.